Camera and Photography Basics

Name all the functions/buttons on the front and back of your camera.

Explain, in your own words, what ISO is and how you would set it. Take three images of the same scene at ISO 100, ISO 1600, and your camera’s highest ISO setting.

All photography is about capturing light (and of course moments or objects) in different ways. «A photographic image is created by capturing various amounts of light reflected from the various parts of a scene.» (learn.zoner.com). And the ISO measures the camera´sensitivity and ability to capture light. When taking pictures of a scene, the dark parts or objects in the scene absorb more of the light and reflects less into the camera, while bright and well lit objects reflect more light. Therefore you might have to raise your ISO setting if you want the camera to capture more of the dark objects in the photo. If your ISO is to high, your image will be overexposed. To fix that you can either lower your ISO, or adjust your shutter speed or aperture depending on your desired result.

Camera settings Picture 1: 1/100, f/ 3.2, ISO 3200
Picture 2: 1/100, f/ 3.2, ISO 1600.
Picture 3: 1/100, f/ 3.2, ISO 100

To set my ISO settings on my Canon DSLR, I first wanna change my mode to M (Manual) to freely adjust all settings. I can adjust my ISO by choosing ISO on my LCD-screen and switch between preset ISO settings. When you get used to taking pictures with a DSLR the easiest way to set your ISO sensitivity on the go, is to push the ISO button while turning on the main dial to your preferred setting.

Most digital cameras operate with ISO 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600 and 3200. The sensitivity doubles, while halving the amount of light that needs to fall on the image sensor to achieve optimal exposure (imaging.nikon.com).

In my images shown above you can see how the exposure changes in the scene, while only adjusting the ISO sensitivity and leaving the aperture and shutter speed the same in all images. These pictures were taken in a quite dark spot of my house on a cloudy day, so ISO 100 with this shutter speed and aperture did not pic up enough light to show the lights objects and the details in the picture. Both ISO 1600 and 3200 made my image overexposed and too light. For this exact shutter speed and aperture, ISO 400 gave me the mest result:

Camera settings Picture 4: 1/100, f/ 3.2, ISO 400

Explain, in your own wordswhat aperture is and how you would change it. Take three images of the same scene and set your aperture to F22, F5.6, and F1.4.

The cameras aperture controls the brightness that passes through the lens and falls on the image sensor. It is expressed as and f-number, written as «f» and followed with a number, for example f/ 8 or f/ 1.4. Changing the f-number changes the amount of light that passes through. The higher the f-number, the less light passes through. Aperture also changes the depth of field in the image. A high f-number increase the depth of field and the distance in front of and behind the focus point in the image. Accordingly a low f-number decrease the depth of field.

I can change my aperture on my DSLR by pushing the Aperture Adjustments/Exposure Compensation button while turning the main dial. In my pictures below you can clearly see the difference between f/1.8 and f/22. In the first picture the vases and candles are the focus points in the image and you can not clearly see what is framed in the background. In the picture with f/ 22 you can even read the text on the note that is placed in the frames, while still keeping the vases and candles clear. To keep all these images the same «brightness» or exposure I had to adjust the shutter speed accordingly to the f-number.

Camera settings Picture 1: 1/1000, f/ 1.8, ISO 3200
Picture 2: 1/125, f/ 5.6, ISO 3200.
Picture 3: 1/8, f/ 22, ISO 3200

Explain in your own words what shutter speed is and how you would change it. Take three images of the same scene and set your shutter speed to 1/1000, 1/60, and 1/4.

The measurement of the time the shutter is open and exposed to light is shutter speed. This is shown in seconds or fraction of seconds (like 1 (s), 1/2, 1/4, 1/1000). The faster the shutter speed, the shorter time the cameras image sensor is exposed to light. Accordingly the slower the shutter speed the longer the sensor is exposed to light. Subjects in motion will get «freezed in motin» when using a fast shutter speed like 1/1000, while the objects will be blurred with slow shutter speeds like 1/2 or 1. When using slow shutter speeds it is a good idea to use a tripod, to avoid your shaking hands or movements affect the blur and movement in the photo.

Like the other settings mentioned, shutter speed also affects the brightness and exposure in the photo. By turning only the main dial in M (manual) mode my shutter speed is adjusted.

Camera settings Picture 1: 1/4, f/ 22, ISO 100
Picture 2: 1/60, f/ 14, ISO 400.
Picture 3: 1/1000, f/ 5.6, ISO 400

Sources:
ISO https://learn.zoner.com/light-photography-light-photography/
ISO https://imaging.nikon.com/lineup/dslr/basics/13/index.htm
Aperture https://imaging.nikon.com/lineup/dslr/basics/04/04.htm
Shutter Speed https://imaging.nikon.com/lineup/dslr/basics/04/03.htm
Shutter Speed https://www.lightroompresets.com/blogs/pretty-presets-blog/17989804-7-days-to-mastering-manual-mode-what-is-shutter-speed

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